Scientific papers and articles

Below is the list of scientific and technical publications stemming from PRIMAVERA.

All publications from the project should also eventually appear as open access on, search under "PRIMAVERA + climate".

Submitted, under review

Moreton, S., D. Ferreira, M. Roberts, H. Hewitt, 2018: Evaluating surface eddy properties in climate simulations with 'eddy-present' and 'eddy-rich' ocean resolution. Ocean Modelling, submitted Dec 2018.

Demory, M.-E., C. Boening, R. Schiemann, P. L. Vidale, J.T. Reager, M. J. Roberts, M. S. Mizielinski, 2019: ENSO-driven variability in terrestrial water cycle in Global Climate Models compared to GRACE. Submitted to ERL.

Klaver, R., R. Haarsma, P.L. Vidale, W. Hazeleger: Effective resolution in high resolution global atmospheric models for climate studies. Submitted to Atmospheric Science Letters.

Koldunov, N.V., Danilov, S., Sidorenko, D., Hutter, N., Losch, M., Goessling, H., Rakowsky, N., Scholz, P., Sein, D. V., Wang, Q., and Jung, T. Fast EVP solutions in a high-resolution sea ice model. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 2018

Gonzalez, P., D. Brayshaw, G. Zappa, 2018: Influence of changes in large-scale circulation on surface wind projections for wind power over Europe. Climate Dynamics, submitted. 

Lima, D. C. A., Soares, P. M. M., Semedo, Á., Cardoso, R. M., Cabos, W. and Sein, D. V. A Climatological Analysis of the Benguela Coastal Low-Level Jet. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2018

Massonnet, F., Barthélemy, A., Worou, K., Fichefet, T., Vancoppenolle, M., Rousset, C., and Moreno-Chamarro, E.: On the discretization of the ice thickness distribution in the NEMO3.6-LIM3 global ocean–sea ice model, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,, in review, 2019.

Roberts, C.D, Vitart, F., Balmaseda, M.A., Molteni, F., “The atmospheric response to increased ocean model resolution in the ECMWF Integrated Forecast System: a seamless approach ”, to be submitted to Journal of Climate.

Roberts, M. J., Baker, A., Blockley, E. W., Calvert, D., Coward, A., Hewitt, H. T., Jackson, L. C., Kuhlbrodt, T., Mathiot, P., Roberts, C. D., Schiemann, R., Seddon, J., Vannière, B., and Vidale, P. L.: Description of the resolution hierarchy of the global coupled HadGEM3-GC3.1 model as used in CMIP6 HighResMIP experiments, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,, in review, 2019.

Roberts, M. J., J. Camp, J. Seddon1, P. L. Vidale, K. Hodges, B. Vanniere, J. Mecking, R. Haarsma4, A. Bellucci, E. Scoccimarro, L.-P. Caron, F. Chauvin, L. Terray, S. Valcke, M.-P. Moine, D. Putrasahan, C. Roberts, R. Senan, C. Zarzycki, P. Ullrich: Impact of model resolution on tropical cyclone simulation using the HighResMIP-PRIMAVERA multi-model ensemble. Submitted to J. Climate (Aug 2019).

Scholz, P., Sidorenko, D., Gurses, O., Danilov, S., Koldunov, N., Wang, Q., Sein, D. V., Smolentseva, M., Rakowsky, N., and Jung, T.: Assessment of the Finite VolumE Sea Ice Ocean Model (FESOM2.0), Part I: Description of selected key model elements and comparison to its predecessor version, Geosci. Model Dev., 2019 .

Sidorenko, D., Goessling, H. F., Koldunov, N., Scholz, P., Danilov, S., Barbi, D., Cabos, W., Gurses, O., Harig, S., Hinrichs, C.,  Juricke, S., Lohmann, G., Losch, M., Mu, L., Rackow, T.,  Rakowsky, N., Sein, D.V., Semmler, T., Shi, X., Stepanek, C., Streffing, J., Wang, Q., Wekerle, C., Yang, H., Jung, T.:  Evaluation of FESOM2.0 coupled to ECHAM6.3: Pre-industrial and HighResMIP simulations. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., submitted.

Wang, Q., Wang, X., Wekerle C., Danilov, S., Jung, T., Koldunov, N., Lind, S., Sein, D.V., Shu, Q., Sidorenko, D. Ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea: Distinct controls on the upward trend and interannual variability.  Geophysical Research Letters, 2019.

Wu, P., M. Roberts, G. Martin, X. Chen, T. Zhou, P. L. Vidale, 2018: The impact of horizontal atmospheric resolution in modelling air-sea fluxes. Submitted to QJRMS.

Yang, Christensen, Corti, von Hardenberg, Davini, 2018: The impact of stochastic physics on the El Niño Southern Oscillation in the EC-Earth coupled model. Climate Dynamics, submitted.

Peer reviewed


Darmaraki, S., Somot, S., Sevault, F., Nabat, P., Cabos Narvaez, W. D., Cavicchia, L., Djurdjevic, V., Li, L., Sannino, G. and Sein, D. V. (2019) Future evolution of Marine Heatwaves in the Mediterranean Sea, Climate Dynamics.

Docquier, D., J. P. Grist, M. J. Roberts, C. D. Roberts, T. Semmler, L. Ponsoni, F. Massonnet, D. Sidorenko, D. Sein, D. Iovino, T. Fichefet, 2019. Impact of model resolution on Arctic sea ice and North Atlantic Ocean heat transport. Climate Dynamics,

Rackow, T., Sein, D. V., Semmler, T., Danilov, S., Koldunov, N. V., Sidorenko, D., Wang, Q., and Jung, T.: Sensitivity of deep ocean biases to horizontal resolution in prototype CMIP6 simulations with AWI-CM1.0, Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2635-2656,, 2019.

Scaife, A. A., J. Camp, R. Comer, P. Davis, M. Gordon, C. MacLachlan, N. Aartin, Y. Nie, H. Ren, M. Roberts, W. Robinson, P. L. Vidale, 2019: Does increased atmospheric resolution improve seasonal climate predictions? Atmospheric Science Letters,

Thomas, M. A., A. Devasthale, T. Koenigk, K. Wyser, M. Roberts, C. Roberts, K. Lohmann, 2019: A statistical and process oriented evaluation of cloud radiative effects in high resolution global models. Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1679-1702.

Wang, Q., Wekerle, C., Danilov, S., Sidorenko, D., Koldunov, N., Sein, D. V., Rabe, B. and Jung, T. (2019) Recent Sea Ice Decline Did Not Significantly Increase the Total Liquid Freshwater Content of the Arctic Ocean, J. Climate, 32, pp. 15-32.


Ayarzagüena, B., S. Ineson, N. J. Dunstone, M. P Baldwin and A. A. Scaife, 2018. Intraseasonal effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation on North Atlantic climate. J. Clim. Accepted.

Bloemendaal, N., Muis, S., Haarsma, R.J. et al., 2018: Global modelling of tropical cyclone storm surges using high-resolution forecasts. Clim Dyn.

Cabos, W., Sein, D. V., Durán-Quesada, A., Liguori, G., Koldunov, N. V., Martínez-López, B., Alvarez, F., Sieck, K., Limareva, N. and Pinto, J. G. (2018). Dynamical downscaling of historical climate over CORDEX Central America domain with a regionally coupled atmosphere–ocean model. Climate Dynamics. doi:

Field, P. R., M. J. Roberts, J. M. Wilkinson, 2018: Simulated lightning in a convection permitting global model. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, doi:

Goosse, H., J. E. Kay, K. C. Armour, A. Bodas-Salcedo, H. Chepfer, D. Docquier, A. Jonko, P. J. Kushner, O. Lecomte, F. Massonnet, H.-S. Park, F. Pithan, G. Svensson, M. Vancopenolle (2018). Quantifying climate feedbacks in polar regions. Nature Communications, doi: This paper is a perspective paper on extending the methodology of radiative climate feedback to non-radiative processes (e.g. sea-ice processes) in polar regions.

Grist, J. P., S. A. Josey, A. L. New, M. Roberts, T. Koenigk, D. Iovino, 2018: Increasing Atlantic ocean heat transport in the latest generation coupled ocean-atmosphere models: The role of air-sea interaction. JGR-Oceans, accepted.

Lima, D. C. A., Soares, P. M. M., Semedo, Á., Cardoso, R. M., Cabos, W. and Sein, D. V. (2018) A Climatological Analysis of the Benguela Coastal Low‐Level Jet, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Massonnet, F., Vancoppenolle, M., Goosse, H., Docquier, D., Fichefet, T., & Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E. (2018). Arctic sea-ice change tied to its mean state through thermodynamic processes. Nature Climate Change, 8(7), 599–603.

McCoy, D. T., Field, P. R., Schmidt, A., Grosvenor, D. P., Bender, F. A. M., Shipway, B. J., Hill, A. A., Wilkinson, J. M., Elsaesser, G. S., 2018: Aerosol midlatitude cyclone indirect effects in observations and high-resolution simulations. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, doi:

McCoy, D. T., Bender, F. A-M., Grosvenor, D. P., Mohrmann, J. K., Hartmann, D. L., Wood, R., Field, P. R., 2018: Predicting decadal trends in cloud droplet number concentration using reanalysis and satellite data. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:

Roberts, C. D., Senan, R., Molteni, F., Boussetta, S., Mayer, M., and Keeley, S. P. E., 2018: Climate model configurations of the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (ECMWF-IFS cycle 43r1) for HighResMIP. Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3681-3712,

Roberts, M. J., P. L. Vidale, C. Senior, H. T. Hewitt, C. Bates, S. Berthou, P. Chang, H. M. Christensen, S. Danilov, M.-E. Demory, S. M. Griffies, R. Haarsma, T. Jung, G. Martin, S. Minobe, T. Ringler, M. Satoh, R. Schiemann, E. Scoccimarro, G. Stephens, M. F. Wehner, 2018: The benefits of global high-resolution for climate simulation: process-understanding and the enabling of stakeholder decisions at the regional scale. BAMS, doi:

Sein, D. V., Koldunov, N. V., Danilov, S., Sidorenko, D., Wekerle, C., Cabos, W., et al. (2018). The relative influence of atmospheric and oceanic model resolution on the circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean in a coupled climate model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10, 2026–2041. doi:

Sidorenko, D., Koldunov, N. V., Wang, Q., Danilov, S., Goessling, H. F., Gurses, O., et al. (2018). Influence of a salt plume parameterization in a coupled climate model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10. doi:

Soares, P. M. M., Lima, D. C. A., Semedo, A., Cardoso, R. M., Cabos, W. and Sein, D. V. (2018)   Assessing the climate change impact on the North African offshore surface wind and coastal low-level jet using coupled and uncoupled regional climate simulations, Climate Dynamics.

Soares, P. M. M., Lima, D. C. A., Semedo, Á., Cardoso, R. M., Cabos, W. and Sein, D. (2018). The North African coastal low level wind jet: a high resolution view, Climate Dynamics. doi:

Tandon, N. F., P. J. Kushner, D. Docquier, J. J. Wettstein, C. Li (2018). Reassessing sea ice drift and its relationship to long term Arctic sea ice loss in coupled climate models. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi: This paper is a multi-model analysis of Arctic sea-ice drift and its link to sea-ice volume in CMIP5 models.

van der Linden, E., R. Haarsma, G. van der Schrier, 2019: Impact of climate model resolution on soil moisture projections in central-western Europe Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 191-206.

Vanniere, B., P. L. Vidale, M.-E. Demory, R. Schiemann, M. J. Roberts, C. D. Roberts, M. Matsueda, L. Terray, T. Koenigk, R. Senan, 2018: Multi-model evaluation of the sensitivity of the global energy budget and hydrological cycle to resolution. Climate Dynamics, doi:

Vries, H. de, Scher, S., Haarsma, R., Drijfhout, S., & Delden, A. van. (2018). How Gulf-Stream SST-fronts influence Atlantic winter storms. Climate Dynamics, 1–11.

Wang, Q., Wekerle, C., Danilov, S., Koldunov, N., Sidorenko, D., Sein, D. V., Rabe, B. and Jung, T. (2018). Arctic Sea Ice Decline Significantly Contributed to the Unprecedented Liquid Freshwater Accumulation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, pp. 4956-4964, doi: https:/


M. M. Dekker, R. J. Haarsma, H. de Vries, M. Baatsen, A. J. van Delden, 2017: Characteristics and development of European cyclones with tropical origin in reanalysis data. Climate Dynamics, doi:

D. Docquier, F. Massonnet, A. Barthélemy, N. F. Tandon, O. Lecomte, and T. Fichefet, 2017: Relationships between Arctic sea ice drift and strength modelled by NEMO-LIM3.6. The Cryosphere, doi:

H. T. Hewitt, M. J. Bell, E. P. Chassignet, A. Czaja, D. Ferreira, S. M. Griffies, P. Hyder, J. L. McClean, A. L. New, M. J. Roberts, 2017: Will high-resolution global ocean models benefit coupled predictions on short-range to climate timescales? Ocean Modelling, doi:

S. Scher, R. J. Haarsma, H. de Vries, S. S. Drijfhout, A. J. van Delden, 2017: Resolution dependence of extreme precipitation and deep convection over the Gulf Stream. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:

Sein, D. V., Koldunov, N. V., Danilov, S., Wang, Q., Sidorenko, D., Fast, I., … Jung, T. (2017). Ocean modeling on a mesh with resolution following the local Rossby radius. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 2601–2614. doi: https:/


R. J. Haarsma, M. Roberts, P. L. Vidale, C. A. Senior, A. Bellucci, Q. Bao, P. Chang, S. Corti, N. S. Fučkar, V. Guemas, J. von Hardenberg, W. Hazeleger, C. Kodama, T. Koenigk, L. R. Leung, J. Lu, J.-J. Luo, J. Mao, M. S. Mizielinski, R. Mizuta, P. Nobre, M. Satoh, E. Scoccimarro, T. Semmler, J. Small, J.-S. von Storch, 2016: High resolution model intercomparison project (HighResMIP). Geoscientifc Model Development Discussions, doi:

M. J. Roberts, H. T. Hewitt, P. Hyder, D. Ferreira, S. A. Josey, M. Mizielinski, A. Shelly, 2016: Impact of ocean resolution on coupled air-sea fluxes and large-scale climate. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:

E. Scoccimarro, P.G. Fogli. K. Reed, S. Gualdi, S.Masina, A. Navarra, 2016: Tropical cyclone interaction with the ocean: the role of high frequency (sub-daily) coupled processes. Journal of Climate, doi:

D. V. Sein, S. Danilov, A. Biastoch, J. V. Durgadoo, D. Sidorenko, S. Harig, Q. Wang, 2016: Designing variable ocean model resolution based on the observed ocean variability. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:

Articles, reports and other publications

Palin, E., et al., 2018: Co-designing state-of-the-art climate model simulations to advance the transport sector’s assessment of climate risk. Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018. 

The following are papers written before PRIMAVERA, but with methods or processes that will be applied to PRIMAVERA multi-model simulations.

R. Schiemann, M.-E. Demory, L. C. Shaffrey, J. Strachan, P. L. Vidale, M. S. Mizielinski, M. J. Roberts, M. Matsueda, M. F. Wehner, T. Jung, 2016: The resolution sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere blocking in four 25‑km atmospheric global circulation models. Journal of Climate, doi:

 Evaluation of FESOM2.0 coupled to ECHAM6.3: Pre-industrial and HighResMIP simulations. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., submitted.