Scientific papers and articles

Below is the list of scientific and technical publications stemming from PRIMAVERA.

All publications from the project should also eventually appear as open access on, search under "PRIMAVERA + climate".

For post-2021 papers, please see

Submitted, under review

Athanasiadis P., A. Baker, F. Ogawa, A. Bellucci, P.L. Vitale and S. Gualdi: Increasing model resolution, SST biases and the representation of North Atlantic eddy-driven jet variability in PRIMAVERA historical simulations. In prep.

Baker, A. J., and coauthors, 2020: Extratropical transition of tropical cyclones in a multi-resolution ensemble of atmosphere-land-only and fully coupled global climate models. In prep. for J. Clim.

Baker, A.J., and coauthors, 2020: Historical variability and lifecycles of North Atlantic midlatitude cyclones originating in the tropics. JGR, submitted.

Bintanja, R and Graversen, R. G.: Regional polar warming and wetting linked to poleward atmospheric moisture transport variability. In prep.

Bojovic, D. St. Clair, I. Christel, M. Terrado, P. Stanzel, P. Gonzalez, E. Palin, 2019: Engagement, Involvement and Empowerment: three realms of a coproduction framework for climate services. GEC, submitted.

Bulatovic, I., Igel, A. L., Leck, C., Heintzenberg, J., Riipinen, I. and Ekman, A. M. L. “The importance of Aitken mode aerosol particles for cloud sustenance in the summertime high Arctic: A simulation study supported by observational data”, submitted to Atmos. Chem. Phys.

Caron, L. P. et al. Impact of Atmospheric Resolution on Climate Model Long Standing Biases. In prep.

Chang, P. and coauthors, 2020: Accelerated Upper Ocean Warming in Response to Anthropogenic Forcing by Ocean Eddies. In prep.

Chripko, S., Msadek, R., Sanchez-Gomez, E., Terray, L., Bessières, L., Moine, M.-P., 2020: Impact of Reduced Arctic Sea Ice on Northern Hemisphere Climate and Weather in Autumn and Winter. J. Clim., submitted (July).

De Vries, I., R. Haarsma, H. de Vries and S. S. Drijfhout, 2020: Impact of small scale Gulf Stream SST features on the North Atlantic storm track. Submitted (Feb 2021).

Delhaye, S., Fichefet T., Massonnet F., Docquier D., Roberts C.D., Senan R., Keeley S., Msadek R., Chripko S., García-Serrano J., Bretonnière P-A., 2020: Sources of uncertainty in the short-term atmospheric response to a sudden summer Arctic sea ice loss. In prep.

Ekman, A. M. L., Nygren, E., Svensson, G., Bellouin, N. Influence of horizontal resolution and complexity of aerosol-cloud interactions on marine stratocumulus and stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition in HadGEM-GC31. Submitted to Clim. Dyn., 2020.

Fabiano F. and co-authors, 2020: A regime view of future circulation changes in Northern mid-latitudes. Weather and Climate Dynamics,

García-Serrano, J., F.J. Doblas-Reyes, T. Koenigk, C.D. Roberts, L. Terray, K. Wyser, 2020: Multi-model assessment of the impact of Arctic sea-ice variability on the winter North Atlantic-Eurasian atmospheric circulation: impact of atmosphere resolution.  (in preparation)

Ghinassi P. and co-authors, 2020: How well is Rossby wave activity represented in the PRIMAVERA coupled simulations. In prep.

Gutjahr, O., Brüggemann, N., Haak, H., Jungclaus, J. H., Putrasahan, D. A., Lohmann, K., von Storch, J.-S., 2020: Comparison of ocean vertical mixing schemes in the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.2). GMD, submitted.

Hariadi, M., van der Schrier, G., Steeneveld, G-J., Sopaheluwakan, A., Klein Tank, A., Roberts, M., Moine, M.-P., Bellucci, A., Senan, R., Tourigny, E., Putrasahan, D., 2020: Evaluation of the Southeast Asia rainy season in CMIP5 regional climate model results and HighResMIP datasets. Submitted to ERL. (June 2020).

Klaver, R., R. Haarsma, and W. Hazeleger, 2020: Nonlinear kinetic energy change across scales in a global climate model. Journ. Atmos. Sci., in review.

Koenigk, T., R. Fuentes-Franco, V. L. Meccia, O. Gutjahr, L. C. Jackson, A. L. New, P. Ortega, C. Robert, M. Roberts, T. Arsouze, D. Iovino, M.-P. Moine, D. V. Sein, 2020: Deep water formation in the North Atlantic Ocean in high resolution global coupled climate models. Clim. Dyn., revised (previous version:

Moon, Y., and coauthors: An evaluation of global climate model-simulated tropical cyclone rainfall structures in the HighResMIP simulations against satellite observations. J. Clim., in prep.

Moreno-Chamarro, E., Ortega, P., and Massonnet, F.: Impact of the ice thickness distribution discretization on the sea ice concentration variability in the NEMO3.6-LIM3 global ocean–sea ice model, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,, in review, 2020.

Müller, O. V., P. L. Vidale, B. Vannière, R. Schiemann, P. McGuire, 2020: Do CMIP6-HighResMIP models overestimate land precipitation at high resolution?: a constraint based on observed river discharge. In prep. for J. Hydrometeor.

Grant, A. and Nurser A.J.G.: "Global ocean model simulations with the  OSMOSIS Ocean Surface Boundary Layer Model.” In prep.

Putrasahan, D. A., and von Storch, J.-S., 2020: Changes in spectral relationships between circulation modes and regional climate under global warming. GRL, in revision.

Qasmi, S. and coauthors: The impacts of the AMV on European summer climate. J. Clim., submitted.

Rackow, T., Danilov, S., Goessling, H. F., Hellmer, H. H., Sein, D. V., Semmler, T., and Jung, T. (2020). Antarctic sea ice decline delayed well into the 21st century in a high-resolution climate projection. Nature Comm. (in revision)

Ruprich-Robert et al., 2020: Impacts of Atlantic Multidecadal Variability on the Tropical Pacific: a multi-model study.  Journal of Climate, submitted.

Rousseau, V.,  Sanchez-Gomez, E., Msadek, R., 2020: Mechanisms shaping wind convergence under extreme synoptic situations above the Gulf Stream region. J. Clim., in prep (to be submitted in August).

Sterlin, J., Fichefet, T., Massonnet, F., Lecomte, O., Vancoppenolle, M., 2020: Sensitivity of two melt pond schemes to the uncertainties in atmospheric reanalyses and melt pond refreezing temperatures for global climate models. In prep.

Van der Wiel, K, R. Haarsma, S S. Drijfhout, 2020: Impact of horizontal resolution on future AMOC decline and associated Western European summer droughts. In preparation.

Wang, S. K. Wyser, T. Koenigk, 2020: A numerical study of the seasonal atmospheric response to snow reduction in the Eurasian and North Hemisphere.  (to be submitted in July)

Peer reviewed

2021 (15)

Bellucci, A., and Coauthors, 2021: Air-sea interactions over the Gulf Stream in an ensemble of HighResMIP present climate simulations. Clim. Dyn., accepted.

Grist, J.P., S. A. Josey, B. Sinha, J. L. Catto, M. J. Roberts, A.C. Coward, 2021: Future evolution of an eddy rich ocean leads to enhanced east Atlantic storminess in a coupled model projection. GRL,

Judt, F., D. Klocke, R. Rios-Berrios, B. Vanniere, F. Ziemen, L. Auger, J. Biercamp, C. Bretherton, X. Chen, P. Duben, C. Hohenegger, M. Khairoutdinov, C. Kodama, L. Kornblueh, S.-J. Lin, M. Nakano, P. Neumann, W. Putman, N. Röber, M. Roberts, M. Satoh, R. Shibuya, B. Stevens, P. L. Vidale, N. Wedi, L. Zhou, 2021: Tropical Cyclones in Global Storm-Resolving Models. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,

Kreussler, P., Caron, L.-P., Wild, S., Loosveldt Tomas, S., Chauvin, F., Moine, M.-P., Roberts, M.J., Ruprich-Robert, Y., Seddon, J., Valcke, S., Vanniere, B., Vidale, P.L., 2021: Tropical Cyclone Integrated Kinetic Energy in an Ensemble of HighResMIP Simulations. GRL, 48, e2020GL090963,

Lohmann, K., Putrasahan, D.A., von Storch, J.-S., Gutjahr, O., Jungclaus, J. H., Haak, H., 2021: Response of the northern North Atlantic to reduced and enlarged wind stress forcing and its impact on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. JGR-Oceans, 126,

Meccia, V., Iovino, D. and Bellucci, A., 2021: North Atlantic gyre circulation in PRIMAVERA models. Clim. Dyn.,

Monerie, P.-A. and coauthors, 2021: Role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability in modulating East Asian climate. Clim. Dyn.,

Moreno-Chamarro, E., L.-P. Caron, P. Ortega, S. L. Tomas, M. J. Roberts, 2021: Can we trust CMIP5/6 future projections of European winter precipitation? ERL,

Moreton, S. and coauthors, 2021: The importance of the ocean-atmosphere resolution ratio for SST- heat flux feedbacks over mesoscale eddies in coupled climate models. Geophys. Res. Lett.,

Putrasahan, D., von Storch, J.-S., Gutjahr, O., Haak, H., Lohmann, K., Roberts, M.J., Jungclaus, J.: Effect of resolving ocean eddies on the transient response of global mean surface temperature to abrupt 4xCO2 forcing. GRL.

Squintu, A.A., van der Schrier, G., van den Besselaar, E., van der Linden, E., Scoccimarro, E., Roberts, C. Klein Tank, A., Roberts, M., Putrasahan, D., Senan, R., 2021: Evaluation of trends in extreme temperatures simulated by HighResMIP models across Europe. Clim. Dyn.,

Tsartsali, E. E., Haarsma, R. J., Athanasiadis, P. J., Bellucci, A., de Vries, H., Drijfhout, S., de Vries, I. E., Putrasahan, D., Roberts, M. J., Sanchez-Gomez, E., Roberts, C. D., 2021: Impact of resolution on the atmosphere-ocean coupling along the Gulf stream in global high resolution models. Clim. Dyn., accepted.

Vidale, P.L., Hodges, K., Davini, P., Roberts, M., Plesca, E., Corti, S., Strommen, K., Weisheimer, A., 2021: Impact of stochastic physics and model resolution on the simulation of Tropical Cyclones in climate GCMs. J. Clim.,

Yamada, Y., Kodama, C., Satoh, M., Sugi, M., Roberts, M. J., Mizuta, R., Noda, A. T., Nasuno, T., Nakano, M., Vidale, P. L., 2021: Evaluation of the contribution of tropical cyclone seeds to changes in tropical cyclone frequency due to global warming in high-resolution multi-model ensemble simulations. Progress in Earth and planetary Science, 8, 11.

Zhang, W., G. Villarini, E. Scoccimarro, M. Roberts, P. L. Vidale, B. Vanniere, L.-P. Caron, D. Putrasahan, C. Roberts, R. Senan, M.-P. Moine, 2021: Tropical Cyclone Precipitation in the HighResMIP Atmosphere-only Experiments of the PRIMAVERA Project. Clim. Dyn.,

2020 (41)

Bador, M., Boé, J., Terray, L., Alexander, L. V., Bellucci, A., Haarsma, R., Koenigk, T., Moine, M.-P., Lohmann, K., Putrasahan, D. A., Roberts, C., Roberts, M., Scoccimarro, E., Schiemann, R., Seddon, J.,  Senan, R., Valcke, S., Vanniere, B., 2020: Impact of higher spatial atmospheric resolution on precipitation extremes over land in global climate models. JGR Atmos., 125, e2019JD032184.

Bock, L., A. Lauer, V. Eyring, M. Schlund, M. Barreiro, N. Bellouin, C. Jones, G. A. Meehl, V. Predoi, and M. J. Roberts, 2020: Quantifying progress across different CMIP phases with the ESMValTool. J. Geophys. Res.

Boé, J., Terray, L., Moine, M.-P., Valcke, S., Bellucci, A., Drijfhout, S., Haarsma, R., Lohmann, K., Putrasahan, D., Roberts, C., Roberts, M., Scoccimarro, E., Seddon, J., Senan, R., Wyser, K., 2020: Past long-term summer warming over western Europe in new generation climate models: role of large-scale atmospheric circulation. ERL,

Davini P. and F. D’Andrea, 2020: From CMIP3 to CMIP6: Northern hemisphere atmospheric blocking simulation in present and future climate. J. Clim., 33(23), 10021-10038,

de la Vara, A., Cabos, W., Sein, D.V. et al., 2020: On the impact of atmospheric vs oceanic resolutions on the representation of the sea surface temperature in the South Eastern Tropical Atlantic. Clim. Dyn., 54, 4733–4757.

Demory, M.-E., Berthou, S., Fernández, J., Sørland, S. L., Brogli, R., Roberts, M. J., Beyerle, U., Seddon, J., Haarsma, R., Schär, C., Buonomo, E., Christensen, O. B., Ciarlo ̀, J. M., Fealy, R., Nikulin, G., Peano, D., Putrasahan, D., Roberts, C. D., Senan, R., Steger, C., Teichmann, C., and Vautard, R., 2020: European daily precipitation according to EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) and high-resolution global climate models (GCMs) from the High-Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP). Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5485–5506,

Docquier, D., R. Fuentes-Franco, T. Koenigk, T. Fichefet, 2020: Sea ice - ocean interactions in the Barents Sea modeled at different resolutions. Front. Earth Sci., 8, 172.

Eyring, V., Bock, L., Lauer, A., Righi, M., Schlund, M., Andela, B., Arnone, E., Bellprat, O., Brötz, B., Caron, L.-P., Carvalhais, N., Cionni, I., Cortesi, N., Crezee, B., Davin, E., Davini, P., Debeire, K., de Mora, L., Deser, C., Docquier, D., Earnshaw, P., Ehbrecht, C., Gier, B. K., Gonzalez-Reviriego, N., Goodman, P., Hagemann, S., Hardiman, S., Hassler, B., Hunter, A., Kadow, C., Kindermann, S., Koirala, S., Koldunov, N. V., Lejeune, Q., Lembo, V., Lovato, T., Lucarini, V., Massonnet, F., Müller, B., Pandde, A., Pérez-Zanón, N., Phillips, A., Predoi, V., Russell, J., Sellar, A., Serva, F., Stacke, T., Swaminathan, R., Torralba, V., Vegas-Regidor, J., von Hardenberg, J., Weigel, K., and Zimmermann, K., 2020: ESMValTool v2.0 – Extended set of large-scale diagnostics for quasi-operational and comprehensive evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,

Fabiano F. , H.M. Christensen,  K. Strommen , P. Athanasiadis , A. Baker , R. Schiemann, S. Corti, 2020: Euro-Atlantic Weather Regimes in the PRIMAVERA coupled climate simulations: impact of resolution and mean state biases on model performance. Climate Dynamics,

Fedele, G., A. Bellucci, S. Masina, S. Pierini, 2020: Decadal variability of the Kuroshio Extension: The response of the jet to increased atmospheric resolution in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Climate Dynamics,

Fuentes-Franco, R. and Koenigk, T., 2020: Identifying remote sources of interannual variability for summer precipitation over Nordic European countries tied to global teleconnection wave patterns, Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 72:1, 1-15,

Gao, J., Minobe, S, Roberts, M.J., Haarsma, R., Putrasahan, D., Roberts, C.D., Scoccimarro, E., Terray, L., Vannière, B. and  Vidale, P.L., 2020: Influence of model resolution on bomb cyclones revealed by HighResMIP-PRIMAVERA simulations. Environmental Research Letters,

Haarsma, R, M Acosta, R Bakhshi, P-A Bretonnière, L-P Caron, M Castrillo, S Corti, P Davini, E Exarchou, F Fabiano, U Fladrich, R Fuentes, J García-Serrano, J von Hardenberg, T Koenigk, X Levine, V Meccia, T van Noije, G van den Oord, F Palmeiro, M Rodrigo, Y Ruprich-Robert, P Le Sager, E Tourigny, S Wang, M van Weele and K Wyser, 2020: HighResMIP versions of EC-Earth: EC-Earth3P and EC-Earth3P-HR. Description, model performance, data handling and validation. Geosci. Model Dev., accepted.

Hewitt, H. T., and Co-authors, 2020: Resolving and parameterising the ocean mesoscale in Earth System Models. Current Climate Change Reports, 6, 137–152.

Hirschi, J. J.-M.,, Barnier, B., Böning, C., Biastoch, A., Blaker, A. T., Coward, A., Danilov, S. , Drijfhout, S., Getzlaff, K., Griffies, S. M., Hasumi, H., Hewitt, H., Iovino, D., Kawasaki, T., Kiss, A. E., Koldunov, N., Marzocchi, A., Moat, B., Molines, J.-M., Myers, P. G., Penduff, T., Roberts, M., Treguier, A.-M., Sein, D. V., Sidorenko, D., Small, J., Spence, P., Thompson, L., Weijer, W., Xu, X., 2020: The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in high resolution models. J. Geophys. Res.,

Jackson, L.C.,·M. J. Roberts, H. T. Hewitt, D. Iovino, T. Koenigk, V. L. Meccia, C. D. Roberts, Y. Ruprich-Robert, R. A. Wood, 2020: Does ocean resolution affect the rate of AMOC weakening? Clim. Dyn.,

Juricke, S., Danilov, S., Koldunov, N., Oliver, M., Sein, D.V., Sidorenko, D., Wang, Q., 2020: A simplified kinetic energy backscatter parametrization: From implementation to global ocean simulations. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12, e2020MS002175.

Klaver, R., R. Haarsma, P.L. Vidale, W. Hazeleger, 2020: Effective resolution in high resolution global atmospheric models for climate studies. Atmospheric Science Letters,

McCoy, D. T., P. Field, H. Gordon, G. S. Elsaesser, and D. P. Grosvenor, 2020: Untangling causality in midlatitude aerosol–cloud adjustments. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4085-4103.

McCoy, D. T.., P. Field, A. Bodas-Salcedo, G. S. Elsaesser, and M. D. Zelinka, 2020: A regime-oriented approach to observationally constraining extratropical shortwave cloud feedbacks. J. Clim., 33(23), 9967-9983.

McCoy, I. L., and Coauthors, 2020: Hemispheric contrasts in satellite-derived cloud microphysical properties constrain aerosol forcing. PNAS, .

Meccia, V. L., Fabiano, F., Davini P., & Corti S., 2020. Stochastic parameterizations and the climate response to external forcing: An experiment with EC‐Earth. Geophysical  Research Letters47, e2019GL085951.

Molteni, F., C. D. Roberts, R. Senan, S. P. E. Keeley, A. Bellucci, S. Corti, R. F. Franco, R. Haarsma, X. Levine, D. Putrasahan, M. J. Roberts, L. Terray, 2020: Boreal-winter teleconnections with the tropical Indo-Pacific rainfall in HighResMIP historical simulations from the PRIMAVERA project. Clim. Dyn.,

Moreton, S., D. Ferreira, M. Roberts, H. Hewitt, 2020: Evaluating surface eddy properties in climate simulations with 'eddy-present' and 'eddy-rich' ocean resolution. Ocean Modelling, 147.

Müller, O. V., P. L. Vidale, B. Vannière, R. Schiemann, R. Senan, R. Haarsma and J. Jungclaus, 2020: Land-atmosphere Coupling Sensitivity to GCMs Resolution: A Multi-model Assessment of Local and Remote Processes in the Sahel Hotspot. J. Clim., 1-55,

Parras-Berrocal, I. M., Vazquez, R., Cabos, W., Sein, D., Mañanes, R., Perez-Sanz, J., and Izquierdo, A., 2020: The climate change signal in the Mediterranean Sea in a regionally coupled atmosphere–ocean model, Ocean Sci., 16, 743–765,

Ponsoni, L., Massonnet, F., Docquier, D., Van Achter, G., and Fichefet, T., 2020: Statistical predictability of the Arctic sea ice volume anomaly: identifying predictors and optimal sampling locations, The Cryosphere,

Righi, M., Andela, B., Eyring, V., Lauer, A., Predoi, V., Schlund, M., Vegas-Regidor, J., Bock, L., Brötz, B., de Mora, L., Diblen, F., Dreyer, L., Drost, N., Earnshaw, P., Hassler, B., Koldunov, N., Little, B., Loosveldt Tomas, S., and Zimmermann, K., 2020: Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0 – technical overview, Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 1179–1199,

Roberts, C.D, Vitart, F., Balmaseda, M.A., Molteni, F., 2020: The time-scale dependent response of the wintertime North Atlantic to increased ocean model resolution in a coupled forecast model. J. Clim, 33 (9): 3663–3689,

Roberts, M. J., J. Camp, J. Seddon, P. L. Vidale, K. Hodges, B. Vanniere, J. Mecking, R. Haarsma, A. Bellucci, E. Scoccimarro, L.-P. Caron, F. Chauvin, L. Terray, S. Valcke, M.-P. Moine, D. Putrasahan, C. Roberts, R. Senan, C. Zarzycki, P. Ullrich, 2020: Impact of model resolution on tropical cyclone simulation using the HighResMIP-PRIMAVERA multi-model ensemble. J. Climate, 33, 7.

Roberts, M.J. and 29 Coauthors, 2020: Projected Future Changes in Tropical Cyclones using the CMIP6 HighResMIP Multi-model Ensemble. Geophys. Res. Lett., accepted.

Roberts, M.J. and 26 Coauthors, 2020: Sensitivity of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Model Resolution in CMIP6 HighResMIP Simulations and Implications for Future Changes. JAMES,

Ruggieri, P. and 19 co-authors, 2020: Atlantic Multidecadal Variability and North Atlantic Jet: a multi-model view from the Decadal Climate Prediction Project. J. Clim., 34(1), 347-360,

Sainsbury, E. M., Schiemann, R. K. H., Hodges, K. I., Shaffrey, L. C., Baker, A. J., & Bhatia, K. T. , 2020: How Important Are Post‐Tropical Cyclones for European Windstorm Risk? Geophysical Research Letters, 47(18).

Santolaria-Otín, M., J. García-Serrano, M. Ménégoz, J. Bech, 2020: On the observed connection between Arctic sea ice and Eurasian snow in relation to the winter North Atlantic Oscillation. Environ. Res. Lett.,

Schiemann, R., Athanasiadis, P., Barriopedro, D., Doblas-Reyes, F., Lohmann, K., Roberts, M. J., Sein, D. V., Roberts, C. D., Terray, L., and Vidale, P. L., 2020: Northern Hemisphere blocking simulation in current climate models: evaluating progress from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 to 6 and sensitivity to resolution, Weather Clim. Dynam., 1, 277–292,

Scoccimarro, E., et al., 2020: The typhoon-induced drying of the Maritime Continent. PNAS, 117 (8) 3983-3988.

Semmler, T., Danilov, S., Gierz, P., Goessling, H., Hegewald, J., Hinrichs, C., Koldunov, N., Khosravi, N., Mu, L., Rackow, T., Sein, D.V., Sidorenko, D., Wang, Q., Jung, T., 2020: Simulations for CMIP6 with the AWI climate model AWI-CM-1-1. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. 

Sidorenko, D., Danilov, S., Fofonova, V., Cabos, W., Koldunov, N., Scholz P., Sein, D., Wang, Q., 2020: AMOC, watermass transformations and their responses to changing resolution in the Finite-volumE Sea ice-Ocean Model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12, e2020MS002317.

Vanniere, B. Roberts, M.J., Vidale, P.L., Hodges, K., Demory, M.-E., et al., 2020: The moisture budget of tropical cyclones: large scale environmental constraints and sensitivity to model horizontal resolution. J. Clim., 33 (19): 8457–8474.

Wang, Q., Wekerle, C., Wang, X., Danilov, S., Koldunov, N., Sein, D., et al., 2020: Intensification of the Atlantic Water supply to the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait induced by Arctic sea ice decline. Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2019GL086682.

2019 (28)

Baker, A.J., R. Schiemann, K.I. Hodges, M. Demory, M.S. Mizielinski, M.J. Roberts, L.C. Shaffrey, J. Strachan, and P.L. Vidale, 2019: Enhanced Climate Change Response of Wintertime North Atlantic Circulation, Cyclonic Activity, and Precipitation in a 25-km-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model. J. Climate, 32, 7763–7781,

Darmaraki, S., Somot, S., Sevault, F., Nabat, P., Cabos Narvaez, W. D., Cavicchia, L., Djurdjevic, V., Li, L., Sannino, G. and Sein, D. V. (2019) Future evolution of Marine Heatwaves in the Mediterranean Sea, Climate Dynamics.

Docquier, D., J. P. Grist, M. J. Roberts, C. D. Roberts, T. Semmler, L. Ponsoni, F. Massonnet, D. Sidorenko, D. Sein, D. Iovino, T. Fichefet, 2019. Impact of model resolution on Arctic sea ice and North Atlantic Ocean heat transport. Climate Dynamics,

Fuentes-Franco R., T. Koenigk, 2019: Sensitivity of the Arctic fresh water budget to model resolution. Climate Dynamics 53, 1765–1781,

Gonzalez, P., D. Brayshaw, G. Zappa, 2019: The contribution of North Atlantic atmospheric circulation shifts to future wind speed projections for wind power over Europe. Climate Dynamics, 53, 4095–4113.

Gutjahr, O., Putrasahan, D., Lohmann, K., Jungclaus, J. H., von Storch, J.-S., Brüggemann, N., Haak, H., and Stössel, A.: Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.2) for the High-Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP), Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3241–3281,, 2019.

Haarsma, R.J., García-Serrano, J., Prodhomme, C., Bellprat O., Davini P., and Drijfhout S. Sensitivity of winter North Atlantic-European climate to resolved atmosphere and ocean dynamics. Sci Rep 9, 13358 (2019).

Koldunov, N.V., Danilov, S., Sidorenko, D., Hutter, N., Losch, M., Goessling, H., Rakowsky, N., Scholz, P., Sein, D. V., Wang, Q., and Jung, T. Fast EVP solutions in a high-resolution sea ice model. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 2019.

Lima, D. C. A., Soares, P. M. M., Semedo, Á., Cardoso, R. M., Cabos, W. and Sein, D. V. A Climatological Analysis of the Benguela Coastal Low-Level Jet. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2018.

Massonnet, F., Barthélemy, A., Worou, K., Fichefet, T., Vancoppenolle, M., Rousset, C., and Moreno-Chamarro, E., 2019: On the discretization of the ice thickness distribution in the NEMO3.6-LIM3 global ocean–sea ice model, Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3745–3758.

Monerie, P.‐A., Robson, J., Dong, B., Hodson, D. L. R., & Klingaman, N. P. (2019). Effect of the Atlantic multidecadal variability on the global monsoon. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 1765– 1775.

Putrasahan, D. A., Lohmann, K., von Storch, J. S., Jungclaus, J. H., Gutjahr, O., & Haak, H. (2019). Surface Flux Drivers for the Slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in a High-Resolution Global Coupled Climate Model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems11(5), 1349–1363.

Rackow, T., Sein, D. V., Semmler, T., Danilov, S., Koldunov, N. V., Sidorenko, D., Wang, Q., and Jung, T.: Sensitivity of deep ocean biases to horizontal resolution in prototype CMIP6 simulations with AWI-CM1.0, Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2635-2656,, 2019.

Roberts, M. J., Baker, A., Blockley, E. W., Calvert, D., Coward, A., Hewitt, H. T., Jackson, L. C., Kuhlbrodt, T., Mathiot, P., Roberts, C. D., Schiemann, R., Seddon, J., Vannière, B., and Vidale, P. L.: Description of the resolution hierarchy of the global coupled HadGEM3-GC3.1 model as used in CMIP6 HighResMIP experiments, Geosci. Model Dev.,, 12, 4999–5028, 2019.

Scaife, A. A., J. Camp, R. Comer, P. Davis, M. Gordon, C. MacLachlan, N. Aartin, Y. Nie, H. Ren, M. Roberts, W. Robinson, P. L. Vidale, 2019: Does increased atmospheric resolution improve seasonal climate predictions? Atmospheric Science Letters,

Scholz, P., Sidorenko, D., Gurses, O., Danilov, S., Koldunov, N., Wang, Q., Sein, D. V., Smolentseva, M., Rakowsky, N., and Jung, T.: Assessment of the Finite VolumE Sea Ice Ocean Model (FESOM2.0), Part I: Description of selected key model elements and comparison to its predecessor version. Geosci. Model Dev., 2019.

Sidorenko, D., Goessling, H. F., Koldunov, N., Scholz, P., Danilov, S., Barbi, D., Cabos, W., Gurses, O., Harig, S., Hinrichs, C.,  Juricke, S., Lohmann, G., Losch, M., Mu, L., Rackow, T.,  Rakowsky, N., Sein, D.V., Semmler, T., Shi, X., Stepanek, C., Streffing, J., Wang, Q., Wekerle, C., Yang, H., Jung, T., 2019:  Evaluation of FESOM2.0 coupled to ECHAM6.3: Pre-industrial and HighResMIP simulations. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst..

Smith, D. M., J.A. Screen, C. Deser, J. Cohen, J.C. Fyfe, J. García-Serrano, T. Jung, V. Kattsov, D. Matei, R. Msadek, Y. Peings, M. Sigmond, J. Ukita, J.-H. Yoon, X. Zhang., 2019: The Polar Amplification Model Intercomparison Project (PAMIP) contribution to CMIP6: investigating the causes and consequences of polar amplification.  Geoscientific Model Development, 12, 1139-1164.

Soares, P., Lima, D. C.A., Semedo, A., Cabos Narvaez, W. D.,  Sein, D. V. (2019) Climate change impact on the Northwestern African offshore wind energy resources. Environmental Research Letters,

Strommen, K., Mavilia, I., Corti, S., Matsueda, M., Davini, P., von Hardenberg, J., et al. 2019. The sensitivity of Euro-Atlantic regimes to model horizontal resolution.Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 7810–7818.

Strommen, K., Christensen, H. M., Macleod, D., Juricke, S., & Palmer, T. N., 2019: Progress towards a probabilistic Earth system model: Examining the impact of stochasticity in the atmosphere and land component of EC-Earth v3.2. Geoscientific Model Development.

Thomas, M. A., A. Devasthale, T. Koenigk, K. Wyser, M. Roberts, C. Roberts, K. Lohmann, 2019: A statistical and process oriented evaluation of cloud radiative effects in high resolution global models. Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1679-1702.

Thomas, M.A., Devasthale A., L’Ecuyer T., Wang S., Koenigk T., Wyser K., 2019: Snowfall distribution and its response to the Arctic Oscillation: An evaluation of GCMs in the Arctic using CPR/CloudSat observations. Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3759–3772,

van der Linden, E., R. Haarsma, G. van der Schrier, 2019: Impact of climate model resolution on soil moisture projections in central-western Europe Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 191-206.

Vries, H.., Scher, S., Haarsma, R. et al., 2019: How Gulf-Stream SST-fronts influence Atlantic winter storms: results from a downscaling experiment with HARMONIE to the role of modified latent heat fluxes and low-level baroclinicity. Clim Dyn, 52: 5899.

Wang, Q., Wekerle, C., Danilov, S., Sidorenko, D., Koldunov, N., Sein, D. V., Rabe, B. and Jung, T. (2019) Recent Sea Ice Decline Did Not Significantly Increase the Total Liquid Freshwater Content of the Arctic Ocean, J. Climate, 32, pp. 15-32.

Wang, Q., Wang, X., Wekerle C., Danilov, S., Jung, T., Koldunov, N., Lind, S., Sein, D.V., Shu, Q., Sidorenko, D., 2019: Ocean heat transport into the Barents Sea: Distinct controls on the upward trend and interannual variability.  Geophysical Research Letters.

Wu, P., M. Roberts, G. Martin, X. Chen, T. Zhou, P. L. Vidale, 2018: The impact of horizontal atmospheric resolution in modelling air-sea fluxes. QJRMS, 145, 3271-3283,

Yang, C., Christensen, H.M., Corti S., von Hardenberg J. and Davini P., 2019. The impact of stochastic physics on the El Niño Southern Oscillation in the EC-Earth coupled model. Clim Dyn 53: 2843.

2018 (20)

Ayarzagüena, B., S. Ineson, N. J. Dunstone, M. P Baldwin and A. A. Scaife, 2018. Intraseasonal effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation on North Atlantic climate. J. Clim.

Bloemendaal, N., Muis, S., Haarsma, R.J. et al., 2018: Global modelling of tropical cyclone storm surges using high-resolution forecasts. Clim Dyn.

Cabos, W., Sein, D. V., Durán-Quesada, A., Liguori, G., Koldunov, N. V., Martínez-López, B., Alvarez, F., Sieck, K., Limareva, N. and Pinto, J. G. (2018). Dynamical downscaling of historical climate over CORDEX Central America domain with a regionally coupled atmosphere–ocean model. Climate Dynamics. doi:

Field, P. R., M. J. Roberts, J. M. Wilkinson, 2018: Simulated lightning in a convection permitting global model. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, doi:

Goosse, H., J. E. Kay, K. C. Armour, A. Bodas-Salcedo, H. Chepfer, D. Docquier, A. Jonko, P. J. Kushner, O. Lecomte, F. Massonnet, H.-S. Park, F. Pithan, G. Svensson, M. Vancopenolle (2018). Quantifying climate feedbacks in polar regions. Nature Communications, doi: This paper is a perspective paper on extending the methodology of radiative climate feedback to non-radiative processes (e.g. sea-ice processes) in polar regions.

Grist, J. P., S. A. Josey, A. L. New, M. Roberts, T. Koenigk, D. Iovino, 2018: Increasing Atlantic ocean heat transport in the latest generation coupled ocean-atmosphere models: The role of air-sea interaction. JGR-Oceans, 123, 8624 - 8637.

Lima, D. C. A., Soares, P. M. M., Semedo, Á., Cardoso, R. M., Cabos, W. and Sein, D. V. (2018) A Climatological Analysis of the Benguela Coastal Low‐Level Jet, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Massonnet, F., Vancoppenolle, M., Goosse, H., Docquier, D., Fichefet, T., & Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E. (2018). Arctic sea-ice change tied to its mean state through thermodynamic processes. Nature Climate Change, 8(7), 599–603.

McCoy, D. T., Field, P. R., Schmidt, A., Grosvenor, D. P., Bender, F. A. M., Shipway, B. J., Hill, A. A., Wilkinson, J. M., Elsaesser, G. S., 2018: Aerosol midlatitude cyclone indirect effects in observations and high-resolution simulations. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, doi:

McCoy, D. T., Bender, F. A-M., Grosvenor, D. P., Mohrmann, J. K., Hartmann, D. L., Wood, R., Field, P. R., 2018: Predicting decadal trends in cloud droplet number concentration using reanalysis and satellite data. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, doi:

Roberts, C. D., Senan, R., Molteni, F., Boussetta, S., Mayer, M., and Keeley, S. P. E., 2018: Climate model configurations of the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (ECMWF-IFS cycle 43r1) for HighResMIP. Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 3681-3712,

Roberts, M. J., P. L. Vidale, C. Senior, H. T. Hewitt, C. Bates, S. Berthou, P. Chang, H. M. Christensen, S. Danilov, M.-E. Demory, S. M. Griffies, R. Haarsma, T. Jung, G. Martin, S. Minobe, T. Ringler, M. Satoh, R. Schiemann, E. Scoccimarro, G. Stephens, M. F. Wehner, 2018: The benefits of global high-resolution for climate simulation: process-understanding and the enabling of stakeholder decisions at the regional scale. BAMS, doi:

Sein, D. V., Koldunov, N. V., Danilov, S., Sidorenko, D., Wekerle, C., Cabos, W., et al. (2018). The relative influence of atmospheric and oceanic model resolution on the circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean in a coupled climate model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10, 2026–2041. doi:

Sidorenko, D., Koldunov, N. V., Wang, Q., Danilov, S., Goessling, H. F., Gurses, O., et al. (2018). Influence of a salt plume parameterization in a coupled climate model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10. doi:

Soares, P. M. M., Lima, D. C. A., Semedo, A., Cardoso, R. M., Cabos, W. and Sein, D. V. (2018)   Assessing the climate change impact on the North African offshore surface wind and coastal low-level jet using coupled and uncoupled regional climate simulations, Climate Dynamics.

Soares, P. M. M., Lima, D. C. A., Semedo, Á., Cardoso, R. M., Cabos, W. and Sein, D. (2018). The North African coastal low level wind jet: a high resolution view, Climate Dynamics. doi:

Tandon, N. F., P. J. Kushner, D. Docquier, J. J. Wettstein, C. Li (2018). Reassessing sea ice drift and its relationship to long term Arctic sea ice loss in coupled climate models. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi: This paper is a multi-model analysis of Arctic sea-ice drift and its link to sea-ice volume in CMIP5 models.

Vanniere, B., P. L. Vidale, M.-E. Demory, R. Schiemann, M. J. Roberts, C. D. Roberts, M. Matsueda, L. Terray, T. Koenigk, R. Senan, 2018: Multi-model evaluation of the sensitivity of the global energy budget and hydrological cycle to resolution. Climate Dynamics, doi:

Vries, H. de, Scher, S., Haarsma, R., Drijfhout, S., & Delden, A. van. (2018). How Gulf-Stream SST-fronts influence Atlantic winter storms. Climate Dynamics, 1–11.

Wang, Q., Wekerle, C., Danilov, S., Koldunov, N., Sidorenko, D., Sein, D. V., Rabe, B. and Jung, T. (2018). Arctic Sea Ice Decline Significantly Contributed to the Unprecedented Liquid Freshwater Accumulation in the Beaufort Gyre of the Arctic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, pp. 4956-4964, doi: https:/

2017 (8)

Davini P., S. Corti, F. D’Andrea, G. Riviere, J. von Hardenberg 2017, Improved winter European atmospheric blocking frequencies in high-resolution global climate simulations, J. Adv Model Earth Sy. 9, 2615–2634.

Davini, P., von Hardenberg, J., Corti, S., Christensen, H. M., Juricke, S., Subramanian, A., Watson, P. A. G., Weisheimer, A., and Palmer, T. N., 2017: Climate SPHINX: evaluating the impact of resolution and stochastic physics parameterisations in the EC-Earth global climate model, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1383-1402,

M. M. Dekker, R. J. Haarsma, H. de Vries, M. Baatsen, A. J. van Delden, 2017: Characteristics and development of European cyclones with tropical origin in reanalysis data. Climate Dynamics, doi:

D. Docquier, F. Massonnet, A. Barthélemy, N. F. Tandon, O. Lecomte, and T. Fichefet, 2017: Relationships between Arctic sea ice drift and strength modelled by NEMO-LIM3.6. The Cryosphere, doi:

H. T. Hewitt, M. J. Bell, E. P. Chassignet, A. Czaja, D. Ferreira, S. M. Griffies, P. Hyder, J. L. McClean, A. L. New, M. J. Roberts, 2017: Will high-resolution global ocean models benefit coupled predictions on short-range to climate timescales? Ocean Modelling, doi:

S. Scher, R. J. Haarsma, H. de Vries, S. S. Drijfhout, A. J. van Delden, 2017: Resolution dependence of extreme precipitation and deep convection over the Gulf Stream. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:

Sein, D. V., Koldunov, N. V., Danilov, S., Wang, Q., Sidorenko, D., Fast, I., … Jung, T. (2017). Ocean modeling on a mesh with resolution following the local Rossby radius. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9, 2601–2614,

Watson, P. A. G., J. Berner, S. Corti, P. Davini, J. von Hardenberg, C. Sanchez, A. Weisheimer, and T. N. Palmer 2017, The impact of stochastic physics on tropical rainfall variability in global climate models on daily to weekly time scales, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 5738–5762, doi:10.1002/2016JD026386.

2016 (4)

R. J. Haarsma, M. Roberts, P. L. Vidale, C. A. Senior, A. Bellucci, Q. Bao, P. Chang, S. Corti, N. S. Fučkar, V. Guemas, J. von Hardenberg, W. Hazeleger, C. Kodama, T. Koenigk, L. R. Leung, J. Lu, J.-J. Luo, J. Mao, M. S. Mizielinski, R. Mizuta, P. Nobre, M. Satoh, E. Scoccimarro, T. Semmler, J. Small, J.-S. von Storch, 2016: High resolution model intercomparison project (HighResMIP). Geoscientifc Model Development Discussions, doi:

M. J. Roberts, H. T. Hewitt, P. Hyder, D. Ferreira, S. A. Josey, M. Mizielinski, A. Shelly, 2016: Impact of ocean resolution on coupled air-sea fluxes and large-scale climate. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:

E. Scoccimarro, P.G. Fogli. K. Reed, S. Gualdi, S.Masina, A. Navarra, 2016: Tropical cyclone interaction with the ocean: the role of high frequency (sub-daily) coupled processes. Journal of Climate, doi:

D. V. Sein, S. Danilov, A. Biastoch, J. V. Durgadoo, D. Sidorenko, S. Harig, Q. Wang, 2016: Designing variable ocean model resolution based on the observed ocean variability. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, doi:

Articles, reports and other publications

Palin, E., et al., 2018: Co-designing state-of-the-art climate model simulations to advance the transport sector’s assessment of climate risk. Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018. 

Non peer-reviewed articles describing PRIMAVERA

World-leading climate models and tools simulate and predict regional climate with unprecedented fidelity in Europe.
World on track for catastrophic warming – forecasters.

The following are papers written before PRIMAVERA, but with methods or processes that will be applied to PRIMAVERA multi-model simulations.

R. Schiemann, M.-E. Demory, L. C. Shaffrey, J. Strachan, P. L. Vidale, M. S. Mizielinski, M. J. Roberts, M. Matsueda, M. F. Wehner, T. Jung, 2016: The resolution sensitivity of Northern Hemisphere blocking in four 25‑km atmospheric global circulation models. Journal of Climate, doi:

 Evaluation of FESOM2.0 coupled to ECHAM6.3: Pre-industrial and HighResMIP simulations. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., submitted.